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Q. What are the common eye problems?
Ans: Common eye problems are:
Refractive Errors Cataract Glaucoma Squint
Diabetic Eye Red Eye Macular degeneration    
(A) Refractive errors : It can be:-
Myopia Hypermetropia Astigmatism Presbyopia
Myopia: It is an error of refraction in which the parallel rays of light from the infinity come to a focus in front of the retina. It is also known as near or short sightedness. Patient can see near objects clearly but unable to see for distance. It can be corrected by spectacle, contact lens and laser.
Hypermetropia: It is an error of refraction in which parallel rays of light from infinity come to a focus behind the retina. It is also known case long sightedness. In this condition patient is unable to see clearly for near object but able to see for distance. It can be corrected by spectacle, contact lens and laser.
Astigmatism: It is an error of refraction in which the parallel rays of light from infinity cannot converges to a point focus due to unequal refraction in different meridians of the optical system of the eye, but form focal lines.
Presbyopia: It is a condition, which usually becomes manifest at the age of 40 yrs. In which the ability to focus on near object decreases due to plasticity of lens and changes in ciliary body. The signs of Presbyopia are eyestrain, difficulty seeing in dim light, problem in focusing on small objects or fine prints. It is corrected by spectacles. Laser correction can be considered in suitable cases.
Cataract: Cataract is also known as motia or safed motia. When the crystalline lens in the eye becomes opaque or cloudy is called cataract.
Glaucoma: Glaucoma is a condition in which intraocular pressure increases which lead to damage of optic nerve fibres causing partial vision loss and blindness if not treated in time. It is also known as “Kala Motia”. Vision lost in glaucoma will not recover. It is a silent killer of optic nerve. Every patient over 35 years of age, especially with family history of glaucoma, trauma, diabetes, hypertension, Myopia, patient on steroid therapy or coloured halos should be screened for
Squint: It is also known as crossed eye. Squint is a misalignment of the two eyes so that both the eyes are not looking in the same direction. This misalignment may be constant, being present throughout the day or it may appear sometimes and the rest of the time of eyes may be straight. It is a common condition among children. It may also occur in adults. It should be treated earliest otherwise it leads to lazy or amylopic eye. Management of squint includes refraction, orthoptic exercise, surgery may or may not require.
Diabetic Eye: Diabetic Eye is a complication due to uncontrolled high blood sugar level (Diabetes Mellitus). Various eye problems occur due to diabetes mellitus are diabetic retinopathy, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, nerve paralysis, lid infections, and frequent change of glasses, early cataract and glaucoma. Hence diabetic patients need regular screening at every six months by Ophthalmologist.
Red eye: There are various causes of red eye like acute conjunctivitis, Allergic conjunctivitis, trachoma, uveitis, acute congestive glaucoma, subconjunctival hemorrhage, dry eye, foreign body, entropion, ectropion, etc.
Macular degeneration: It is also known as age related macular degeneration (AMD). It is a medical condition which usually effects over the age of 50 yrs, which results in loss of vision in the center of visual field. Usually involves both eyes. It is a major cause of blindness. Person with macular degeneration finds difficulty in reading or recognizing faces although enough peripheral vision remains to allow other activities of daily life. It occurs in two forms: (1) dry macular degeneration, (2) wet macular degeneration.
Q. What are the symptoms of refractive errors?
Blurred vision, eye strain, Headache, inability and difficulty to read, write and watch T.V., bringing books near to face while reading, squizing or frequent blinking both upper lids etc.
Q. How can the problem of Refractive error be corrected?
Eye surgeon at R.V.S. Eye Centre will examine the patient, after ophthalmic evaluation it is corrected by spectacles, contact lens or vision correction surgery (Lasik, C-lasik, E-lasik, SBK, ICL or Refractive lens exchange).
Q. What are the symptoms of cataract?
The most common symptom of cataract is blurred vision. In addition to it patient may experience, frequent change of glasses, glare at night (especially during driving), fading of colours, seeing two/three images with one eye, decreased contrast.
Q. What is the treatment of cataract? Can cataract be treated medically or prevented?
The treatment of Cataract is surgical removal of cataract by Phacoemulsification (suture less cataract surgery) with Intra ocular lens implant. Unfortunately there is no effective medical treatment till date.
Q. What are the symptoms of glaucoma?
There are two types of glaucoma: - (1) open angle glaucoma, (2) closed angle glaucoma. Symptoms of glaucoma are different for each kind. In open angle glaucoma gradual loss of vision, frequent change of glass, or there may be no symptoms at all.
In closed angle glaucoma symptoms are severe eye pain, brow ache, and redness of eye, colored halos, decrease vision, redness, watery eye, headache, nausea and vomiting.
Q. Can Glaucoma be treated medically?
Yes, majority of patients are managed medically. A few require laser treatment. Fewer still require major or minor surgery.
Q. Can glaucoma be prevented?
Ans: Glaucoma cannot be prevented but timely intervention can avoid severe visual loss.
Q. What are the symptoms of Diabetic eye disease?
It may be symptomless in the initial stages. Later on it leads to blurred vision, frequent change of glasses, floaters, recurrent painful swelling at lids (stye).
Q. How to manage Diabetic Eye?
By proper patient counseling to maintain blood sugar levels, lipid profile, change in life style, regular physical exercise, regular eye checkups and appropriate management with either laser, injections or vireo-retinal surgery.
Q. How do take care of my eyes?
Regular eye checkups for children upto 18 yrs every 6 months, for adults-every year and for diabetics every 6 months.
Q. What is the criteria for LASIK procedure?
Person should be more than 18yrs. Refraction should be stable.
Corneal thickness should be adequate. Retina should be healthy.
There should not be any existing eye disease. General good health.
There should be no pregnancy or on breast feeding.  
Only your ophthalmologist can determine whether you are a suitable candidate of LASIK or not.
Q. What is Uveitis?
Uveitis is the inflammation of the Iris, Ciliary body and Choroid. It can be Anterior, Intermediate and Posterior. In the majority of cases Uveitis is idiopathic. Signs and Symptoms of Uveitis are: Eye pain, redness, blurring of vision, increased light sensitivity, floaters and flashes. Uveitis is usually recurrent. Early treatment is very important, otherwise it will lead to complications like: Cataract, Glaucoma, Macular oedema, etc.
Q. What is retinal detachment and its management?
Retinal detachment is a condition in which the neurosensory retina is separated from the underlining pigment epithelium and hence loses its functional capacity. Symptoms are: Sudden and severe loss of vision and if not treated properly, it can cause blindness, shrinking and disfiguring of the eye. Retinal detachment is of two types:
Primary type - associated with retinal tear or a hole.
Secondary type – usually occurs in diabetics or with other vascular diseases of the retina.
Management: A retinal tear without a detachment can be treated by a simple Laser or Cryopexy procedure. Retinal detachment requires a major surgery, vitrectomy may be required in some cases.
Q. What is the effect of computer on eye?
Computer Vision Syndrome or Computer Stress Syndrome. Symptoms are dry eye, burning sensation, eye strain, foreign body sensation, irritation, itching in eye, redness of eye, excess watering of eye, increased eye discomfort while reading and watching TV.
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